In part 1 of this series, we looked at defining your family’s philosophy of education. Today, we’ll look at your child’s learning style, which we cannot fully discuss until we look at Dr. Howard Gardner’s theory of Multiple Intelligences.
Dr. Howard Gardner first came on my radar when I was in teacher’s ed. many years ago. And, he’s still the one who comes to mind when I think about learning styles because they are closely related (although Gardner warns, they are not one and the same).
According to Dr. Gardner*, each of us is born with eight intelligences:
- naturalist (added in 1995 by Dr. Gardner)
- interpersonal (social)
- intrapersonal (understanding of self)
This philosophy of how we learn has been introduced in classrooms since 1983 when Dr. Gardner’s work Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences was originally published. And, it was revolutionary regarding how teachers planned for their diverse students, even though it wasn’t written with teachers in mind.
Your child most likely is strong in one or two intelligences. Rather than teaching to those one or two intelligences alone, Dr. Gardner explains that the child needs to be exposed to all the intelligences since “all human beings possess the capacity to develop the several intelligences.”
Dr. Gardner delineates the difference between learning style and intelligence as follows:
Learning styles are broken down into main three categories:
- tactile/ kinesthetic
That being said, when it comes to finding your child’s learning style and dominant intelligence, you need to observe your child carefully for a period. Luckily, as a parent, you have the advantage over a teacher in that you have been with your child since the very beginning and have years-worth of observations to go by. In case you want to take more time with this, observe your child:
- during free time (What does he choose to do?)
- during playtime (What does he choose to play with?)
- while in the company of others (Does he tend to join in or keep to himself?)
- in structured activities (What does he struggle with? What is his behavior like? What comes easily to him?)
While there are checklists/ quizzes that you can look at for multiple intelligences, the truth is, you already know what your child’s strengths are. In looking at the list above, I’m pretty positive you have already pointed out two of your child’s strengths – one in terms of what I’ll call the more academic intelligences (the first 6 on the list) and one of what I’ll call the more social intelligences (the last 2).
How to narrow down your child’s dominant intelligence:
For a child with special needs, focusing on intelligences first (as opposed to learning style) is highly significant since some restrictions are prevalent. You can narrow down your child’s dominant intelligence by the process of elimination. Although, be careful here. Having a limitation in one area does not mean that your child isn’t intelligent in that area, as I demonstrate below.
My son is non-verbal and far from beginning to learn to read and write. Linguistic intelligence would not be his dominant intelligence. I also know that he’s far from understanding numbers and number sense; therefore, I could easily eliminate logical-mathematical. Seeing as he’s also limited in physical ways – both in fine and gross motor skills, I would not consider him to have strong bodily-kinesthetic intelligence nor visual-spatial intelligence. I would also eliminate naturalist, much to my dismay, as he has many aversions to textures in the outdoors.
Despite the fact that my son has a mild hearing loss in one ear and a severe hearing loss in the other – since birth, he’s been extremely motivated by sounds. He has always loved music and rhythm. In fact, when I was still pregnant, I distinctly recall him kicking during a drum band performance at school. Merely in the way that he lights up when I switch on music, without a doubt, my son has strong musical-rhythmic intelligence.
Furthermore, what’s fascinating is that I have always known that my son has a connection with music beyond typical musical talents. He can’t hold a tune or play an instrument just yet, but I can tell that he listens to musical sounds and intonations in ways I never have – even though music has always been a substantial chunk of my life. How do I know how musically intelligent he is? I have caught my son laughing at different musical arrangements within instrumental pieces of music. When I stopped and listened to what he was responding to, I realized that there was some comedy to those few bars in the piece. A quick-run of the scale, the sound of choppy xylophone taps, or the increasing tempo in guitar strumming does not go unnoticed with my musically smart kiddo!
I cannot speak of his intrapersonal intelligence because I am not sure what he understands about himself just yet. However, he has strong connections with everyone he encounters which leads me to think that he classifies as possessing interpersonal intelligence.
So, I’ve narrowed it down to 2 primary intelligences: musical-rhythmic and intrapersonal.
For one reason or another, these intelligences were most developed and nurtured in him throughout his life. Does that mean that I never focus on the other intelligences? No, of course not. This gives me a solid place to start, however. This tells me that to help my son learn new concepts, I should begin where/in ways that he is most proficient and slowly develop the other intelligences. In other words, I primarily teach to these intelligences, but I also create learning activities that reinforce the less dominant intelligences because I want him to be as well-rounded as possible – even if in his way.
Can you already see how your planning will come into better focus just knowing what your child’s dominant intelligences are?
What about learning style?
Now, this is where this gets interesting. Although my son struggles with gross and fine motor skills, he chooses to explore his world through touch and deep body experiences. Based on his dominant intelligences, you would think that he’s more of an auditory learner. However, because he tends to use his body to learn about new things in his environment, I could say that he’s a tactile-kinesthetic learner, hands down (pun not intended).
Questions to ask yourself:
To find your child’s dominant intelligences (aim for two to get started), ask yourself:
- Which of the first six intelligences could I easily eliminate?
- Which of the last two intelligences could I easily eliminate?
To find your child’s main learning style, ask yourself:
- What have I observed my child do when exploring his environment? Does he tend to listen more? Is he drawn by visuals? Or does he prefer to use movements and use his body?
You don’t need complicated checklists to figure out your child’s dominant intelligences and learning style. As a parent, you intuitively know the answer to these questions. Take some time in your homeschool reflections journal to respond to these questions. Once you have the intelligence and learning styles in writing, you will be better able to plan for your child’s year (which is what’s coming up in the rest of this series).
If you prefer to take a test, see the resources below.
What have you observed about your child’s learning style? What would you say is his dominant intelligence?
* Dr.Howard Gardner’s FAQ – a PDF written by Gardner himself in response to the many questions he received over the years regarding Multiple Intelligences
Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences – book by Howard Gardner (affiliate link to my bookshop)
Multiple Intelligences: New Horizons in Theory and Practice – book by Howard Gardner (affiliate link to my bookshop)
The Unschooled Mind: How Children Think and How Schools Should Teach – book by Howard Gardner (affiliate link to my bookshop)
The Big What Now Book of Learning Styles: A Fresh and Demystifying Approach – book by Carol Barnier (affiliate link to my bookshop)